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GRAMMAR PAGE:

The Prepositions of Time

The Past Continuous Tense

The Future Indefinite Tense

The Construction «It takes .to get ...»

Notes: Prepositions are not used with:

last, this, next:

I´ll see him next week.

in the sentences such as:

How many times a day (week, year, etc.) ...? I have meals three times a day.

Exercise 1. Fill in the suitable prepositions:

1. ... winter the rivers are covered ... ice.

... the begining ... autumn it was still warm.

... 9 o´clock yesterday I was ... home.

She usually has lunch ... one o´clock ... the cafe.

We often go ... the forest ... fine weather.

Miss Jane always arrives ... office ... time.

The sun shines ... the sky brightly.

I was born ... 1949.

I have meeting ... the 1st ... October.

... the north ... Europe it is very cold ... winter.

Exercise 2. Translate into English:

Зараз три години ранку.

Заняття починаються о шостій годині ранку та закінчуються о восьмій.

Він від´їжджає з Києва 10-го серпня.

Ми працюємо з дев´ятої по п´яту годину по робочим дням.

Ми поїдемо до бабусі на цих вихідних.

Я віддам йому цю книжку за годину.

Мій брат любить ходити на роботу пішки за любої погоди.

Зараз за сім хвилин п´ята за моїм годинником.

У мене замало часу на дорогу до університету, бо я маю купити заздалегідь квитки на виставу.

Ми повинні закінчити роботу до кінця місяця.

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Formation: to be (was / were) + VIV (-ing) (Paticiple I)

Using:

1) to denote the action: which was going on at definite moment or period of time in the past. It was in the middle of hapening with such adverbials: at 5 o´clock yesterday, at that moment, from 5 till 7yesterday etc:

I was reading at 7 o´clock in the evening.

2) when there are two actions: the first was in a progress and the second interrupted it was expressed in the Past Indefinite Tense:

It was snowing heavily when I returned home. 3) when there were 2 or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous):

He was reading while we were watching TV.

Table 2

Exercise 3. Make up negative and interogative forms:

Ann was having her English lesson at 10 o´clock.

The students were preparing for their exams all last Saturday.

Nick was writing an article from 2 till 3 yesterday.

Helen was playing the piano the whole morning.

Dick was typing the letter when somebody knoked at the door.

I was working from 8 till 9 last week.

Tom was watching TV programme when his mother called him.

Robert was going to the library when she met him.

Olga was answering the questions when the bell rang.

He was reading a book at 10 to-night.

Exercise 4. Guess: what professions the following persons have? MODEL: She was looking after a very sick person. She was a nurse.

She was writing a new detective story.

He was making bread, cakes and rolls

.

She was designing new buildings.

He was selling meat and sausage.

He was painting pictures in oil.

She was playing the part of Hamlet.

He was earning his living by fishing.

She was sewing dresses and blouses for ladies.

He was writing the reports for the newspaper.

He was repairing TV sets.

Exercise 5. Ask your friend where (why, etc.) he (she, somebody else) was doing it.

MODEL: Kate was writing a letter when I came to her place. (whom ... to)

Whom was she writing a letter to?

To her parents.

Tom and Peter were going in the street when I saw them (where).

I was waiting for you at ten (where).

Nick and Helen were talking when I came in (what ... about).

We were watching TV at 5 o´clock (what programme).

When the teacher came in, the students were discussing a very interesting topic (what topic).

When I saw Ann and Jane several hours ago, they were laughing gaily (why).

I was waiting you at 12 (where).

When he came into the room she was talking on the phone (whom ... to).

They were working in the laboratory (what ... laboratory).

David was reading a book the whole evening (what book).

Table 3

Ann came into the room, put off her coat and sat down on the chair.

2. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

I was playing the piano He was finishing school It was raining

She was cooking dinner

from 5 till 7 yesterday. when she met him. when they went to the cinema. while her son was watching TV.

Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into suitable Tenses: the Past Simple or the Past Continuous:

Yesterday from 6 till 8 o´clock in the evening he (to write) a letter to his friend.

When the phone (to ring), they (to discuss) some business matters.

When the businessman (to enter) the reception-room, the secretary (to read) some papers.

Dick and Nancy (to plan) their business trip when the specialist of the British firm (to arrive).

You (to talk) with the manager of the firm when I (to see) you last Monday.

When my friend (to come) in I (to make) a hotel reservation by phone.

The representatives of the partner firms (to discuss) the terms from 2 till 5 p.m.

The director (to read) documents all day last Thursday.

We (to see) you at the hotel yesterday. You (to talk) with a lady.

When he (to come) home, Helen (to talk) over the phone.

Exercise 7. Translate into English:

Що ти робив вчора з третьої по п´яту годину? Я телефонував тобі.

Коли ми проходили паспортний контроль, пролунав дзвінок.

Куди ти йшов, коли я побачив тебе?

До кого говорив вчитель, коли вона зайшла до кімнати?

Хто сидів біля вікна, коли прийшли діти?

Коли ми пішли до лісу, пішов сильний дощ.

Вже сутеніло, коли ми прийшли додому.

Коли ми приїхали на станцію, там грала гарна музика.

Вона співала пісню, коли відкрилися двері.

Я саме відпочивав, коли принесли листа від мого дядька.

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

Formation: will + Vr

Using: 1) to express the future action when we predict the future or future situation with such adverbials: tomorrow, next day (week, mouns, year), soon:

I ´ll go to Japan next year.

with the following words and expressions: probably, I´m sure, I expect, I think:

I think, I´ll stay at home tomorrow.

in offering, agreeing, refusing, promising, asking to do something:

Will you close the window, please?

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE ISN´T USED:

to say about decided or arranged future actions:

I am going to the theatre tomorrow. (The tickets are already bought; arranged future action.)

(We use the Present Continuous.);

to say about timetables or programmes:

The train comes at 5 o´clock tomorrow. (According to the timetable.) (We use the Present Indefinite.);

in subbordinate clauses (of time or condition) after conjunctions:

when, if, as soon as, after, before, till, until, while: When rain stops, you´ll go to the park. (Condition.) (We use the Present Indefinite.)

Table 4

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

positive [+]

I, we (I´ll, we´ll) do it tomorrow.

you will (you´ll) visit them next week.

they (they´ll) read the text in two hours.

he, she, it (he´ll, she´ll, it´ll) go there soon.

Note: The auxuliary verb shall is outdated. It isn´t used in modern Grammar.

Exercise 8. Make up negative and interrogative sentences:

I will see Mary at the club in the evening.

Father will plant fruit trees in our garden next summer.

They will see many places of interest in London when they go there.

Ann will translate this article easily when she returns.

They will wait for us after the concert.

I will have a good rest in summer.

He will return from abroad soon.

They will receive a lot of money when they finish their work.

She will study English in two years.

Bob will take his exam on Friday.

Exercise 9. Answer the questions:

How will you spend your winter holiday?

How will you organize a meeting with your classmates?

How will you organize a New Year party?

How will you go on excursion to Lviv?

How will you celebrate your birthday party?

How will you help your parents about the house?

How will you repair your house?

How will you cook dinner?

How will you clean your room?

How will you spend your money?

Exercise 10. Join the following pairs of the sentences into one, using the words in brackets, as in the model:

MODEL:

I will go to the theatre. I will get the tickets (if). I will go to the theatre if I get the tickets.

She will come. She will receive my letter (when).

They will work at this firm. They will graduate from the University (after).

Tom will not come. He will finish his report (until).

I will buy a new house. I will get a new work (if).

She will wash the dishes. She will have dinner (after).

He will tell us his story. He will visit our place (when).

I will read the newspaper. I will find it (after).

They will watch the TV programme. The TV programme will be interesting (if).

They will live in Lviv. They will get married (when).

I will show you my flat. You will visit me (as soon as).

Exercise 11. Translate into English:

He дзвони мені між другою і третьою годиною, бо я буду зайнятий.

Чи поїдемо ми до музею наступного тиждня?

Він закінчить обідати через кілька хвилин.

Хто дивитиметься цю телевізійну програму?

Вони підуть завтра у ліс, якщо буде гарна погода.

Якщо я поїду у відпустку на південь, я буду купатися у морі.

Що ти будеш робити завтра, якщо вона повернеться?

Ми поговоримо про це завтра, коли повернемось із роботи.

Якщо ви поїдете у Львів, я приєднаюсь до вас.

Коли він перекладатиме цей текст, він випише всі нові слова.

Table 5

b) How long

to get to the office? to read the book? to cook dinner? to do my homework? to get there?

Exercise 12. Translate into English:

У нього піде лише декілька хвилин на переклад цього речення.

У неї іде ціла година, щоб приготувати обід.

У них іде дві години, щоб зробити домашнє завдання.

Скільки часу у вас піде на підготовку статті?

У нього пішло більше години, щоб знайти її адресу.

У них пішло декілька днів, щоб завчити це правило.

Скільки їм треба часу, щоб доїхати до бібліотеки?

У них не пішло навіть і півгодини, щоб продивитись всі документи.

У вас піде цілий місяць, щоб отримати відповідь.

Скільки у неї піде часу на те, щоб виконати вправу?


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