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6.2. ENVIROMENTAL CONDITIONS READING


Text 1. Environmental Pollution (A)

People have always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in uncrowded rural area: and did not have pollution — causing machines. With the development of crowded industrial cities which put huge amounts of pollutants into small areas, the problem has become more important. Automobiles and other new inventions make pollution steadily worse. Since the late 1960´s people have become alarmed with the danger of pollution.

Air, water, and soil are necessary for existence of all living things. But polluted air can cause illness, and even death. Polluted water kills fish and other marine life. On polluted soil, food can not be grown. In addition environmental pollution spoils the natural beauty of our planet.

Pollution is as complicated as serious problem. Automobiles are polluting the air but they provide transportation for the people. Factories pollute the air and the water but they provide jobs for people and produce necessary goods. Fertilisers and pesticides are important for growing crops but they can ruin soil.

Thus, people would have to stop using many useful things if they wanted to end pollution immediately. Most people do not want that of course. But pollution can be reduced gradually. Scientists and engineers can find the ways to reduce pollution from automobiles and factories. Government can pass the laws that would make enterprises take measures for reducing of pollution. Individuals and groups of people can work together to persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities.

Exercises:

Read and translate the text 1.

Answer the following questions:

Why wasn´t pollution such as a serious problem earlier?

When have people become alarmed with the danger of pollution?

What can environmental pollution cause?

Why is pollution a complicated problem?

Can pollution be stopped immediately?

What can the government and individuals do to reduce pollution?

Text 2. The Problem of Environmental Protection (B)

Environmental protection is the main problem facing humanity nowadays. The image of a sick planet has become firmly established in the public mind lately. Ten years ago the word «ecology» hardly meant anything for the majority of people, but today we can´t help bearing it in our minds. It has a happened because of the growing effect of the rapid industrial development of the natural world which has negative features of its own. As a matter of fact the state of environment has greatly worsened of late.

There is no doubt that soil, water and air are contaminated with toxic wastes. Over the past few years we have been constantly speaking about ozone hole, droughts, high level of radiation, about food contaminated with chemicals. Scientists in many countries are very much concerned about drastic changes in weather patterns. The worst drought, the mildest winter and the most devastating hurricane have become typical in those parts of the world where they used to be a rare occurrence. Weather patterns have been changing recently due to the global warming-up proc

ess and its major reason — the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is created by carbon dioxide emissions, released by industrial facilities and a constantly increasing number of cars. Thus it is of vital importance that the world should start cutting down the release of gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, What is the reason for people getting so much worried about the state of environment? The answer to this question is fairly simple. The thing is the deterioration of the environment is telling heavily on people. They are paying for this with their health. And it is obvious what all people need is a healthy environment.

To solve this burning problem it is necessary for people to combine efforts, to raise safety standards at all industrial facilities, to adequately process by-products of industry, to set up an international space laboratory to monitor the state of environment and set up an international center for emergency environmental assistance. All these measures will help us in solving these important problems and prevent us from dangerous illnesses and diseases.

Exercises:

Read and translate text.

Answer the questions:

What is the main problem facing humanity nowadays?

What image has become firmly established in the public mind lately?

What are soil, water and air contaminated with?

What are specialists of many countries concerned about?

Why have the water patterns changed recently?

What is the major reason for the global warming-up process?

What is the greenhouse effect created by?

Why do people get much worried about the state of the environment?

What is it necessary to do to solve the problem of environmental protection?

What measures will help us to prevent dangerous illnesses and diseases?

Text 3. The Environmental Situation in Ukraine (B)

The high level of industrial and agricultural concentration and ecologically unjustified economic activities of the managerial structures of the former USSR are responsible for a rather complicated ecological situation that has taken shape in Ukraine. The most unfavourable is the Donetsk- Trans-Dnipro region where a lot of mining metallurgical and chemical enterprises are operating.

As a result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster of 1986, the environmental situation has become much worse. Apropos of this Ukraine appealed to the UNO requesting help to overcome the disaster aftermath.

The Environmental Protection Law well in compliance with international standards in this field has been in force since 1991. Environmental safeguards of conservation bodies have become more stringent. Ecological monitoring has covered Ukraine´s whole area and the Extraordinary Governmental Commission on the Problems of the Dnipro and Upgrading the Quality of

Drinking Water has been set up. Ukraine has actively joined international cooperation in the field of environmental protection. Agreements have been signed with conservation bodies of the USA, Poland, Czechia, Slovakia, Germany and Latvia. The Ukrainian delegation took part in the UNO Conference on the Problems of Environment in Rio de Janeiro.

Ukraine enters a new phase of its history with intentions to create a democratically minded, law-based, independent society. Ukraine is looking for its place in European House, in the civilized world going to its aim unswervingly.

Exercises:

Read and translate the text

Answer the following questions:

What are the reasons for rather complicated ecological situation that has taken shape in Ukraine?

What do you know about Chornobyl nuclear power plant disaster?

What countries have agreements with conservation bodies been signed with?

What measures in your opinion should be undertaken to overcome ecological situation that has taken shape in Ukraine?

What is the ecological situation in your city?


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