The Present Perfect Tense

Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives. Comparative Structures

Indefinite Personal Sentences


Formation: to have (have/has) + Vm (Participle II)

Using: to denote a completed past action:

connected with the moment of speaking. (We are interested in the result of the action, not in the action itself):

I have lost my key. (I haven´t got it now).

with the periods of time which are not finished: today, this morning (week, month, season, etc.).

It has snowed this morning.

with the adverbials of time: up to now, of late, so far, just, yet, already, ever, never:

She hasn´t come yet.

They have already done this work.

which began in the past and is still going on at the moment of speaking with the prepositions: since, for. (We are interested in how much or how many times we have done something):

for situations that exist for a long time:

Pete has lived in Lviv for 15 years. Pete has lived in Lviv since 1989.

with verbs are not used in the Continuous Tenses:

We have known each other since we were at school.


Learn the difference between have gone to and have been to:

Pete is on holiday. He has gone to Lviv. (He is there now or on his way there.)

Pete is back in Kyiv now. He has been to Lviv. (He was there but now he has come back.)

Table 1

Short answers:

I, we, you haven´t. He, she (it) hasn´t.


with the adverbials of past time: yesterday, last week, an hour ago, at 5 o´clock.

I saw him yesterday.

to ask when something happened:

When did you arrive?


Table 2

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions as in the model: MODEL:

Is Ann still painting a picture? No, she has already painted it.

Is Helen still dusting the rugs?

Is Donald still washing the car?

Is Ann still sweeping the floor?

Are the Browns still packing their things?

Is the secretary still typing the letters?

Is Father still repaind the TV set?

Is Mother still cooking dinner?

Is the teacher still explaining the rule?

Are the people still reading the text?

Are you still choosing the present?

Exercise 3. Ask your friend if he (she, somebody else) has also done it. MODEL:

I have just returned from the park.

Has Peter returned from the park, too?

Yes, he has. (No, he hasn´t.)

Father has come home from his office.

Peter has learned the poem by heart.

Jane has kept her promice.

Peter has come home late.

I have known Ann since chilhood.

Tom has read this book in the original.

Our family has moved vinto a new flat.

I have lived in the village these two years.

Jill has made a lot of mistakes in her distation.

We have lived in this street since we got a new flat.

Exercise 4. Write down the three forms of the following verbs and make up sentences with them:

to buy to have to meet

to sell to take to put

to spend to see to do

to send to be to make

to go to give to get

Exercise 5. Put the verb into the correct form: the Present Perfect Tense or the Past Indefinite Tense.

Helen (to buy) a new flat two weeks ago. Mr. Brown (to work) in a bank for 10 years. Then he gave it up. Bob and Jill are married. They (to be) married for 20 years. When we were on holiday, the weather (to be) awful. The weather (to be) very nice recently, don´t you think? My aunt died 10 years ago. I (never to meet) her. Helly lives in London. She (to live) there all her life. Last night I (to arrive) home, (to have) a bath, and then (to go) to bed.

The car looks very clean (you to wash) it?

Her hair is very short. She (to have) a haircut.

Exercise 6.Translate the following sentences into English.

Він вже купив подарунок на день народження?

Я щойно повернулась із Лондону і збираюсь відвідати своїх друзів.

Що ти купив у супермаркеті?

Він витратив дуже багато грошей на продукти.

Скільки разів ви були цього року у театрі?

Я дуже рада бачити Ганну. Я не бачила її з 1980.

Том вже зробив домашнє завдання і зараз дивиться телевізор.

Останнім часом я не одержував листів від своїх батьків. — Коли ти одержав останнього листа? — Місяць тому. З того часу я надіслав їм кілька листів.

Ви коли-небудь були за кордоном?

Ви вже поснідали? — Так, ми снідали годину тому.

Table 3


By ending: -er, (the) -est:

a mute «e» is dropped: fine — finer — the finest;

a final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short stressed vowel:

sad — sadder — the saddest;

the final «y» is changed into «i» if it is preceded by a consonant:

busy — busier — the busiest;

the final «y» is not changed if it is preceded by a vowel:

gay — gayer — the gayest.

Exercise 1. Make up comparative and superlative form of adjectives.

funny comfortable lucky

new interesting clever

old serious little

far late young

generous wide quiet

Exercise 2. Fill in the correct forms of adjectives:

It was a very happy day. It was ... of my life.

London isn´t very beautiful. Paris is ... .

White blouse is fashionable, but the black one is ... .

This house isn´t very modern. I prefer ... houses.

My chair is not very comfortable. Yours is ... .

The wind is strong today. But yesterday it was ... .

He is a stupid person. He is ... person in the world.

Where is ... way to the busstop? I´m short of time.

It´s very cold today. This is ... day of March.

These shoes are too small. I want a pair ... .

Exercise 3. Translate into English:

Покажіть мені більш яскраву сорочку.

Вони вирішили купити більш дешеву машину.

Я гадаю, що він мій найкращий друг.

Вона молодша від нього на два роки.

Ця вулиця найдовша в місті.

Зараз там найсухіша пора року.

Синя сукня більш коротка ніж чорна.

Ці черевики найдорожчі в магазині.

Ганна — найрозумніша студентка у групі.

Тут найлегше знайти потрібні товари.

Table 4.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with as ... as or not so ... as:

This shirt is ... expensive ... that one.

This shop is ... large ... the one which is in their town.

This story is ... long ... that one, but it is not ... interesting.

The winter in Great Britain is ... cold ... in Ukraine.

I have ... many books ... my sister has.

This room is ... light ... mine.

Is this building ... high ... yours?

My salary is ... high ... my friend.

The weather isn´t ... unpleasant ... yesterday.

There are ... many students at this meeting ... they were last one.

Exercise 5. Retire the following sentences with as ... as or not as ... as: MODEL:

Bob´s taller than Jack. Jack is not as tall as Bob.

Are you and your husband the same age? Are you ... your husband?

You can read more quickly than I can. I can´t read ... .

Roy got more present than Nick. Nick didn´t get ... Roy.

The sun´s much hotter than the moon. The moon isn´t ... .

Jill is more intelligent than Bill. Bill is not . .

Harry won more money than Bill. Bill didn´t win ... .

Is Paris bigger than London? Yes, it is. Is London ... ? No, it isn´t.

Ann´s work is better than mine.

My work isn´t ... .

Dogs are friendlier than cats.

Cats aren´t ... .

My watch is cheaper than yours. Your watch isn´t ... .

Exercise 6. Translate into English the following sentences:

Твоя відпустка не така велика, як моя.

Чим раніше ми поїдемо, тим скоріше повернемось.

Ця сукня не така дорога, як я очікував.

Його квартира така ж простора, як моя.

Чим дорожчий готель, тим краще там обслуговування.

Я зараз не купую стільки речей, як раніше.

Чим більше ми вчимося, тим більше ми знаємо.

Парк знаходиться не так близько, як я очікував.

Іспит був такий же легкий, як і залік.

Я приїду так швидко, як зможу.


Using: when the subject of a sentence doesn´t refer to any particular person, it is expressed by:

the indefinite pronoun — one: One can buy here fresh bread.

the personal pronouns — they, you, we:

They sell milk, eggs and other dairy products there.

Exercise 7. Translate into English:

Ніколи не можна бути впевненим.

У цьому відділі продають сувенири.

Треба завжди бути уважним на вулиці.

Кажуть, що весна буде холодною цього року.

Треба завжди дотримуватися свого слова.

Ніколи не знаєш, що може трапитись. Що можна купити в овочевому відділі? В універмазі продають багато товарів широкого вжитку. Що можна сказати з цього приводу? 10. Щоб доїхати до театру, треба скористатись метро.