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Section 1. GUIDELINES FOR READING ACADEMIC TEXTS

VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT VOCABULARY-IN-CONTEXT QUESTIONS

Instruction: How to answer vocabulary questions.

In general, it is easier to answer vocabulary questions based on the context of a passage than it is to answer questions about vocabulary in single, isolated sentences.

In vocabulary-in-context questions, you must determine which words or phrases can best substitute for a word or words in the passage. When answering vocabulary-in-context questions, you must most often depend on the general context of the sentence to help you choose the correct answer.

You should follow these steps to answer vocabulary-in-context items.

Look at the word being asked about and try to define possible answer choices. If you are familiar with the word, guess which answer is correct. Do NOT make your answer final yet because you may want to try again later.

Read the sentence in which the word appears. If you were familiar with the word and guessed at the answer, make sure that the word that you chose fits with the word as it is used in the sentence. If you were unfamiliar with the word, see if context clues in the sentence or in the sentences before or after help you guess the meaning.

If you are not sure which answer is correct, read the sentence with a possible answer choice in place. Does one seem more logical, given the context of the sentence, than the other? If not, do any seem illogical? If they do you can eliminate them.

Text: Weather Terms — Cloudy or Clear?

Introduction.

We are all interested in what the weather forecast has to tell us: Will it rain when we want to go to the beach, to the park, or to a ball game? Will there be a heavy snow tomorrow, so that commuter trains and school buses may run on a delayed schedule (or maybe not at all)?

The forecast itself becomes more interesting and more understandable if we look into the meanings of the terms that forecasters use. Some parts of the weather forecast seem easy enough to understand — for example, the predicted high and low temperatures. But weather terms such as «high-pressure system,» «occluded front,» or «temperature-humidity index» sound more complicated. The meanings of these terms become clear, however, once you know something about the major factors that produce the weather and how these factors influence one another.

Precipitation.

It refers to rain, snow, sleet, and hail — types of moisture that fall from the atmosphere. Moisture enters the atmosphere through the evaporation of water from lakes, rivers, soil, and even green plants on Earth’s surface. This evaporated water is called water vapor.

At a given temperature and pressure, the air can hold only a certain amount of moisture, and colder air can hold less than can warmer air. The dew point is the temperature of the air at which water vapor begins to condense (turn to liquid). The vapor may condense on Earth’s surface as dew or frost or in the air around tiny particles of dust or pollution.

High in the air, the tiny water drople

ts form the clouds; but near ground, they create fog. If the temperature of the air is below freezing, the water vapor that forms clouds turns into microscopic ice crystals.

Rain falls when the microscopic water droplets in clouds collide, merge, and finally become too heavy for the air to support them. If the air temperature is above about 4 °C (39 °F), ice crystals in clouds melt as they fall to Earth, also creating rain. At slightly lower temperatures, the result is sleet. Below about 3 °C (37 °F), the moisture falls as snow.

Hailstones are frozen raindrops or ice pellets that are swept up by powerful updrafts (upward movements of air) in storm clouds and coated with a layer of icy water that freezes. The pellets drop and then get carried back up again to freezing heights by the updraft. But as this process repeats, the hailstones grow until they find their way into a downdraft that carries them to the ground. If the hailstones are large enough, they will not completely melt as they fall to Earth, even on a warm summer day.

In weather forecasts, forecasters often refer to the chance of precipitation as a percentage. A 30 per cent chance of rain, for example, means that it rained in the past on 30 days out of every 100 with similar weather conditions.

Clues in the context

Vocabulary in context includes both single words (usually nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs). And twoor three-word phrases. In ordinary reading, there are a number of clues that can help you determine the meaning of an unknown word:

Synonyms

Precipitation refers to rain, snow, sleet, and hail — types of moisture that the word moisture is a synonym for the word precipitation.

Moisture enters the atmosphere through the evaporation of water from lakes, rivers, soil, and even green plants on Earth’s surface. This evaporated water is called water vapor. The word combination water vapor is a synonym for the word evaporation.

Find synonyms for the word hailstones.

Examples

Very often examples are given in the text to illustrate the meaning of a word:

Will there be a heavy snow tomorrow, so that commuter trains and school buses may run on a delayed schedule (or maybe not at all)?

From the example given, it is clear that heavy snow is a kind of snow that interferes with traffic.

Find an example explaining the meaning of the word percentage in weather forecasts?

Contrast

The meaning of some words may be understood by contrasting them to other words. E.g.: High in the air, the tiny water droplets form the clouds; but near ground, they create fog.

From the sentence, it is clear that clouds are tiny water droplets high in the air while fog is tiny water droplets near ground. Since the word signaling contrast (but) is used it is clear that the difference is in the high or low position in the air.

Explain a contrast in the following: The pellets drop and then get carried

back up again to freezing heights by the updraft. But as this process repeats, the hailstones grow until they find their way into a downdraft that carries them to the ground.

General context

The meaning of some words can be perceived from the general context they are used in. E.g.: But weather terms such as «high-pressure system,» «occluded front,» or «temperature-humidity index» sound more complicated. The meanings of these terms become clear, however, once you know something about the major factors that produce the weather and how these factors influence one another. As is generally known, weather is a combination of factors, so clearly the words «high-pressure system,» «occluded front,» or «temperature-humidity index» must mean major factors producing the weather and influencing one another.

Explain the difference between rain, sleet and snow in the following context: Rain falls when the microscopic water droplets in clouds collide, merge, and finally become too heavy for the air to support them. If the air temperature is above about 4 °C (39 °F), ice crystals in clouds melt as they fall to Earth, also creating rain. At slightly lower temperatures, the result is sleet. Below about 3 °C (37 °F), the moisture falls as snow.

Direct definitions

Sometimes there might be correct definitions of the word in the context of the passage. In an academic text direct definitions of special terms are often given by the author. It helps you make a glossary of special terms in your field. E.g.: The dew point is the temperature of the air at which water vapor begins to condense (turn to liquid).

Find a definition of an updraft.

Semantic and thematic groups

Semantic groups are formed of words close in meaning; thematic groups are formed of words referring to the same variety or type of objects or phenomena. While making up a glossary it helps if you group them on the principle of similarity or closeness of meaning. E.g.:

Interesting, understandable, easy, complicated, clear;

precipitation, rain, snow, sleet, hail, moisture, evaporation, evaporated water, water vapor.

What words form a group of types of moisture that fall from the atmosphere?

Word nests

It is easier to memorize words when they are organized into root-related groups of words. E.g.:

Evaporation, to evaporate, evaporated, vapor, water vapor; forecast, to forecast, weather forecasts, forecasters

Complete a word nest for the words: frost, freeze, …, …

Humidity

It is a measure of the water vapor in the air. Absolute humidity is the actual amount of water vapor in a given volume of air. Weather forecasts more often refer to relative humidity — a ratio between the actual moisture and the maximum amount of moisture that air at that temperature could hold. If the temperature outside drops to the dew point, relative humidity becomes 100 per cent and fog is likely to form.

Relative humidity affects our comfort. For example, in hot weather, high relative humidity slows the evaporation of water from the skin and makes us feel uncomfortably hot and sticky. In cold weather, high relative humidity conducts heat away from the body and makes the air feel cold and raw.

The temperature-humidity index (THI) sometimes mentioned in forecasts was once called the discomfort index. This scale estimates the degree of discomfort caused by hot, moist weather. The higher the reading, the more discomfort people feel. Most people feel comfortable with a THI below 75.

Air pressure

It is the weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the surface of Earth. Meteorologists call it barometric pressure because the instrument used to measure air pressure is called a barometer. The barometer was invented in 1643 by Evangelista Torricelli, an Italian physicist, who demonstrated that the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level could push a column of mercury 76 centimeters (30 inches) up a glass tube. Hence, standard barometric pressure is about 30 inches of mercury at sea level.

In the United States, weather forecasts give barometric pressure in inches. Meteorologists who use the metric system express barometric pressure in units called bars and millibars. A millibar is one-thousandth of a bar, and standard barometric pressure averages 1,013 millibars at sea level.

Zones of high atmospheric pressure, also called highs, contain dense air. In the Northern Hemisphere, many highs form in polar regions because the colder a mass of air gets, the denser it becomes, and this increases its pressure. A high also occurs where an air mass cools in relation to the surrounding air. As the cooling air becomes denser, it sinks. This further compresses the air, warming it somewhat and increasing its ability to hold moisture. As a result, the water drops that make up clouds evaporate, and the sky over a high-pressure zone is usually clear.

But low-pressure zones, or lows, contain air that is less dense. Lows form where the air is warm and rises. The warm air cools as it rises, and the water vapor it holds begins to condense. As a result, the sky over a low is generally cloudy.

Changes in barometric pressure help forecast weather conditions. A high with rising barometric pressure typically signals fine, clear weather ahead, whereas a low with falling barometric pressure often indicates bad weather ahead — usually heavy, prolonged rain.

Fronts.

Fronts where most abrupt changes in the weather occur, are the boundaries between huge masses of air, each with its own temperature and moisture content. The movements of these air masses influence local weather. For example, an air mass from the equator can produce balmy weather, while an air mass from northern Canada can bring a cold spell. Air masses of different temperatures meet and do battle along fronts. Fronts were discovered toward the end of World War I (1914-1918) and are so named because the clashing of air masses reminded meteorologists of the clashing of armies along a battlefront.

Strong fronts, which occur where there is a large difference in temperature or moisture between air masses, bring high winds and stormy weather. But weak fronts, where the two air masses are close in temperature, often pass unnoticed, except by meteorologists. In North America, highs, lows, and fronts generally move from west to east and follow curving paths. A front may be warm or cold, depending upon which air mass — the warmer or the colder — is pushing the air ahead of it.

A warm front occurs where a relatively warm air mass advances on a colder air mass. The warm air, which is lighter, pushes up and over the edge of the cold air. As the warm air rises, it cools and thereby loses some of its ability to hold moisture. If the air is fairly humid, some of this moisture may turn into rain or snow. If the air is dry, clouds may form but precipitation will be slight. The gentle rain or drizzle that warm fronts often bring usually lasts several days. After the front passes, the temperature rises and the sky clears.

A cold front forms where a relatively cool air mass overtakes a warmer air mass. The cold air, being denser, slides under the edge of the warmer air, lifting it rapidly. Tall clouds form as the warm air quickly cools on its steep ascent. The more moisture in the air, the larger the clouds are.

Cold fronts bring bad weather, but they move faster than warm fronts, and the bad weather usually ends soon. If a cold front moves very fast, it may slide under a warm air mass, lift it off the ground, and collide with another cold air mass on the far side of the warm air. In this case, an occluded front forms. The word occlude comes from a Latin word meaning to close off, and the two cold air masses essentially «close off the warm air mass. Occluded fronts usually bring less severe weather than warm or cold fronts and tend to stay in one place for a longer time.

Sometimes air masses meet and do not move, forming a stationary front.

This kind of front usually brings unsettled weather that lasts a while.

A thermal inversion is a weather condition that occurs when a mass of warm air forms over cooler air near the ground. The lighter warm air sits like a lid atop the cooler air, blocking the normal air circulation. In large cities such as Los Angeles, a thick haze of automobile exhaust, industrial chemicals, and other pollutants may build up during the thermal inversion. The warm air above is very stable and prevents the pollutants from rising and scattering and results in a type of air pollution often called smog.

Winds and wind speed.

Wind is simply air in motion over Earth’s surface. The sun’s uneven heating of Earth’s surface sets air in motion. As warm air rises, cool air rushes in to replace it.

The uneven heating of land and water surfaces along coastlines creates local winds. During the day, the land warms faster than the water and heats the air above it. As this warm air rises, cooler air over the water rushes in to replace it. At night, the land cools faster than the water, and cooler air blows from land to replace warm air rising over the water.

But the strongest winds occur along fronts. The greater the differences in temperature and pressure along the front, the stronger the winds are.

Winds also spiral into low-pressure zones, like water into a whirlpool. For this reason, meteorologists call low-pressure zones cyclones, a term that comes from the Greek word for circle. A high-pressure zone is called an anticyclone because wind flows out of it in the direction opposite that of a cyclone. North of the equator, the winds move counterclockwise around a cyclone and clockwise around an anticyclone due to Earth’s rotation. South of the equator, cyclone winds move clockwise; anticyclone winds, counterclockwise.

A jet stream is a band of strong winds at a high altitude. Jet streams follow meandering paths from west to east at speeds up to 400 kilometers per hour (400 kph) or 250 miles per hour (250 mph), changing their course frequently. Over the Northern Hemisphere, cold air masses predominate to the north of a jet stream and warm air masses to its south.

Wind chill provides an estimate of the effect of wind speed on air temperature. Wind accelerates the loss of heat from the body, even on a hot day. The faster the wind blows, the more heat the body loses and the colder the temperature feels. On a day with a temperature of 1.7 °C (35 °F), for example, a wind of 8 kph (5 mph) has the effect of lowering the temperature to 0 °C (32 °F). A wind that is blowing twice as fast appears to lower the wind-chill temperature to -5.6°C (22 °F).

Wind shear is a rapid change in the speed or direction of wind. Wind shear can be dangerous for airplane travel, especially if the change is a downburst, a gust of wind that blows straight to the ground. Downbursts may develop when precipitation falls through dry air, suddenly cooling the air and making it more dense. The air may then plummet to the ground.

7. Storms.

A hurricane or typhoon is a violent, swirling storm that develops in a lowpressure area over tropical ocean regions. Hurricanes grow in size and strength as they travel, feeding on heat from the warm water. They peter out when they pass over land or cold water, which robs them of their source of energy. As hurricanes move onto land, their heavy rains often cause floods.

A tornado is a small, intense funnel of wind that extends downward from the dark clouds that form during thunderstorms. Wind speeds in a tornado can exceed 320 kph (200 mph). Strong up-drafts of wind inside the funnel are powerful enough to lift automobiles and mobile homes into the air. In the United States, tornadoes occur most frequently in the Midwest in spring.

Winter storms and thunderstorms often form when air that is moist and relatively warm is set in motion, perhaps by an advancing cold front. Water vapor in the air quickly condenses as the warm air rises, forming massive, towering clouds that produce heavy rains, blizzards, or ice storms.

In thunderstorms, the motion of the air also causes electric charges to build up inside the cloud, producing lightning. Flashes of lightning heat the surrounding air, causing the air to expand violently and create the sound waves known as thunder.

Even when such severe weather is not threatening, it’s still a good idea to understand the meaning of common weather terms. And knowing about the actions of fronts, highs, and lows can help you understand why the forecaster predicts that the weather will be fair or foul. [Peter R. Limburg]

Tasks: Answer vocabulary-in-context questions about words or phrases in reading passages.

Directions: Do the tasks and answer the questions about the vocabulary in the passages, and mark the words or phrases that are closest in meaning to the words or phrases that are asked about.

Synonyms

  • · Find synonyms for winds.
  • · Find synonyms for wind shear.
  • · Find synonyms for storm.
  • · Find synonyms for winter storms.

Read the passages and answer the questions:

  • · Fronts, where most abrupt changes in the weather occur, are the boundaries between huge masses of air, each with its own temperature and moisture content. The movements of these air masses influence local weather. For example, an air mass from the equator can produce balmy weather, while an air mass from northern Canada can bring a cold spell.
  • · How do movements of fronts influence local weather?
  • · What is clear from the examples given above?
  • · Relative humidity affects our comfort. For example, in hot weather, high relative humidity slows the evaporation of water from the skin and makes us feel uncomfortably hot and sticky. In cold weather, high relative humidity conducts heat away from the body and makes the air feel cold and raw.
  • · How does relative humidity affects our comfort?

Contrast

Explain a contrast in the following: Zones of high atmospheric pressure, also called highs, contain dense air…But low-pressure zones, or lows, contain air that is less dense. Lows form where the air is warm and rises.

Explain a contrast in the following: Strong fronts, which occur where there is a large difference in temperature or moisture between air masses, bring high winds and stormy weather. But weak fronts, where the two air masses are close in temperature, often pass unnoticed, except by meteorologists.

General context

  • · Why is the temperature-humidity index sometimes called in forecasts the discomfort index?
  • · Why do meteorologists call air pressure barometric pressure?

Explain the meaning of the word «peter out» in the following sentence: Hurricanes grow in size and strength as they travel, feeding on heat from the warm water. They peter out when they pass over land or cold water, which robs them of their source of energy.

What clue is given by the fact that land or cold water robs them of their source of energy?

Direct definitions

Find a definition of humidity.

Find a definition of air pressure.

Find a definition of front.

Find a definition of thermal inversion.

Semantic and thematic groups

What words form a group of pollutants?

What words form a thematic group for winter storms?

Word nests

Complete a word nest with words for bars and millibars.

Complete a word nest with word combinations for humidity.

Complete a word nest with word combinations for front.

Section 2. GUIDELINES FOR GRAMMAR TEST

Verb problems

Verb errors involving tense

Most tense errors involve the simple (Indefinite) present tense, the simple past tense, and the present perfect tense.

The simple present tense is a general-time tense. It usually indicates that a condition is always true or that an action always occurs. It may also indicate that an action regularly occurs.

The Earth rotates round the Sun.

The atmosphere surrounds the Earth. John often stays at this hotel.

Generally, the lectures of this professor are very interesting.

The simple past tense indicates that an action took place at a specific time in the past.

They moved to Simferopol five years ago. This house was built in the 1990s.

Dinosaurs lived millions of years ago.

The present perfect tense usually indicates that an action began at some time in the past and continues to the present. It may also indicate that an action took place at an unspecified time in the past.

Mr. Brandon has worked for this company since 1990. Mary hasn’t been to a doctor for a year. Nick has recently returned from the US.

For a Ukrainian/Russian speaker it is often difficult to see the difference between the simple (Indefinite) tense and the progressive (Continuous) tense. Compare the following sentences:

John often stays at this hotel (in general). John is staying at this hotel (now, this week, this summer).

John drives to his office (usually). John is driving to his office (now, today, in the immediate future).

If you want to state a fact you will say: The Earth rotates round the Sun. If you want to emphasize that it is an everlasting process you will say: The Earth is permanently rotating round the Sun (with the adverbs always, constantly, ever, permanently).

Errors with verbals

Verbals are participles, gerunds, infinitives, and—for the purpose of this lesson—simple forms of the verb (infinitives without the word to).

Participles are verbal adjectives. In this part of the test, participles are often seen before nouns as word adjectives.

Present participles end with -ing. When used before a noun, present participles have an active meaning.

Past participles of regular verbs end in -ed; the past participles of many common verbs are irregular. Before nouns, past participles have a passive meaning.

It was an exhausting 10-kilometer race, (present participle)

The exhausted runners were too tired to move after the race, (past participle)

In the first sentence, the race exhausts the runners. The race «performs» the action. In the second sentence, the runners are exhausted by the race. They receive the action.

Participles are also used in phrases after nouns as reduced (shortened) relative clauses. Again, present participles imply an active idea, past participles a passive one.

The man stealing the money was arrested, (present participle; means «who stole»).

The money stolen from the bank was recovered, (past participle; means

«which was stolen»).

A gerund is a verbal form that ends in -ing: being, going, giving, building. Like infinitives, gerunds are often followed by objects: giving directions, building a house. Together, a gerund and its object form a gerund phrase. They can be the subjects of verbs, the objects of prepositions, and the objects of certain verbs.

Gerunds, by their meaning, are verbal nouns and, as such, are used as other nouns are used. You will generally see gerunds as subjects or objects of verbs or as objects of prepositions.

Note: Infinitives can also be subjects and objects but NEVER objects of prepositions.

Playing cards is enjoyable, (gerund as subject of a verb).

Dancing is a good exercise, (gerund as subject).

He enjoys going to good restaurants, (gerund as object of a verb). He avoids eating junk food, (gerund as object of a verb).

He passes the time by playing cards, (gerund as object of a preposition).

You can solve this problem by using a calculator, (gerund as object of a preposition).

Note: All twoand three-word verb phrases that can be followed by verbals are used with gerunds, not infinitives. This is true even when the verb phrase ends with the word to.

I am looking forward to visiting with you next summer. I cannot agree to going to New Orleans.

My partner is opposed to our participating in this deal.

(This can be tricky because infinitives always begin with the word to.)

An infinitive is a verbal form that consists of the word to and the simple form of the verb: to be, to go, to give, to build. Infinitives are often followed by an object: to give directions, to build a house. Together, an infinitive and its object form an infinitive phrase.

Infinitives can be used in a variety of ways. Like gerunds, infinitives can be subjects of verbs and the objects of certain verbs (see list). Unlike gerunds, infinitives can NEVER be objects of prepositions.

To read the directions is important, (infinitive as subject of a verb).

To help others is rewarding, (infinitive as subject).

He forgot to read the directions, (infinitive as object of a verb).

He attempted to swim across the river, (infinitive as object of a verb).

Infinitives are used in several other ways:

It’s important to read the directions, (infinitive after to be + adjective).

It’s important to change the oil in your car frequently, (infinitive after an adjective).

The first man to land on the moon was Neil Armstrong, (infinitive used as an adjective after a noun).

Infinitives can also be used to show purpose. In other words, they explain why an action takes place. (The phrase in order + infinitive also shows purpose.).

To learn how to dance, he took lessons.

In order to learn how to dance, he took lessons.

She must take this class to graduate, (infinitive used to show purpose). Infinitives can be used as adjective phrases after noun phrases. You will often see this in structure problems after noun phrases containing the word first. These infinitive phrases often come at the end of a sentence and are set off by commas.

John Glenn was the first American to orbit the Earth.

You may see structure items that focus on passive infinitives. A passive infinitive consists of the word to + be + past participle.

Roberta was the first person to be asked to speak at the meeting.

Simple forms are the base forms of verbs; they consist of the infinitive without the word to. Simple forms are used after the causative verbs have, make, and let:

He had the carpenter repair the door. His father makes him study hard. She let her son go on the trip.

Common Verbs That Take Verbal Objects

Verbs used with Gerunds: admit, avoid, deny, enjoy, finish, justify, quit, recommend, suggest, understand.

Verbs used with Infinitives: agree, allow, arrange, attempt, cause, choose, decide, enable, hope, instruct, know (how), learn (how), permit, persuade, require, seem, teach (how), tell, use, warn.

Infinitives are used with have, and simple verbs are used with let and make: I have to do my research paper by next Monday. The professor won’t let us waste time on this experiment. Necessity makes you look for options.

Watch for the following errors involving verbals:

the eggs of most birds must be kept warm.

Proper development

By properly developing,

They develop properly

To develop properly,

The only one of these four phrases listed here that can show purpose is choice (D), an infinitive. This expression means, In order to develop properly.

In 1959 the political philosopher Hannah Arendt became the first woman a full professor at Princeton University.

to appoint

was appointed

to be appointed

an appointment as

After a noun phrase such as the first woman an infinitive is used as an adjective phrase. Because a passive form is needed (Hannah Arendt receives the action; she doesn’t perform the action), choice (A) is not the correct infinitive form. Choice (C), a passive infinitive, is best.

The ear is the organ of hearing, but it also plays a role in balance.

maintaining

it maintains

to maintain

maintained

A gerund is used correctly after a preposition. Choices (B), (C), and (D) would not be appropriate after a preposition.

Mini-test

Identify and correct errors involving verbs and verbals

Rain falls when the microscopic water droplets in clouds .

are colliding

have collided

collide

will collide

If the temperature outside drops to the dew point, relative humidity

_100 per cent and fog is likely to form.

has become

becomes

will become

became

In the United States, weather forecasts barometric pressure in inches.

are giving

Have given

gave

give

The temperature-humidity index (THI) sometimes in forecasts was once called the discomfort index.

mentioning

mentioned

to mention

is mentioned

At air temperature above about 4 °C (39 °F), ice crystals in clouds .

will melt

have melted

melt

are melting

Moisture regularly the atmosphere through the evaporation of water.

(A have entered

is entering

entered

enters

Some parts of the weather forecast seem easy enough .

understood

to understand

understading

understand

Weak fronts, where the two air masses are close in temperature, often pass _.

unnotice

to unnotice

unnoticed

unnoticing

The warm air rises to quickly condense into rain.

condensing

condensed

to condense

condense

Generally moving from west to east fronts follow paths.

are curving

to curve

curved

curving

By uneven of land and water surfaces along coastlines local winds are created.

heating

heat

heated

heats

A wind of 8 kph has the effect of the temperature to 0 °C.

lowered

lowering

lower

to lower

In thunderstorms, the motion of the air also causes electric charges up inside the cloud, producing lightning.

built

build

of building

to build

about the actions of fronts, highs, and lows can help you understand the forecasts.

Known

To know

Knowing

Know,

Flashes of lightning heat the surrounding air, the air to expand violently.

are causing

caused

causing

to cause

A front may be warm or cold, upon which air mass is pushing the air ahead of it.

depending

is depending

to depend

depends


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