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Section 1. GUIDELINES FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION

Study secrets and strategies

Instruction: This text is an adaptation of Jamie Littlefield’s recommendations for distance learning students, published in the Internet and free of copyright limitations. You are to read and understand the text with the purpose of acquiring study secrets and strategies, speaking skills and vocabulary well enough to employ these tips, firstly, while reading for your candidate exam, and secondly, while discussing learning strategies and intelligence types with your examiner.

Part 1. Five tips and tricks to help you pass your candidate exam

Most postgraduate students hate candidate exams. They hate the feeling of trying to remember the answer to a question, worrying that they focused on the wrong material, and waiting to receive their results.

Whether you learn at a traditional school or study from the comfort of your own home, chances are you’ll have to sit through many a test-taking experience. But, there are a few tricks you can learn now to avoid the worry before you’re in the heat of the moment. Give these five proven study tips a try and see how much better you feel during your next exam.

Survey your textbook or workbook before you read. Take a couple of minutes to find the glossary, index, study questions, and other important information. Then, when you sit down to study, you’ll know where to find the answers you are looking for.

Make sure you read any study questions before you read the chapter. These questions let you know what you can probably expect in any upcoming tests, papers, or projects.

Attack your textbook with sticky notes. As you read, summarize (write down the main points in just a few sentences) each section of the chapter on a post-it note. After you have read the entire chapter and summarized each section, go back and review the post-it notes. Reading the post-it notes is an easy and fast way to review information and, since each note is stuck in the section it summarizes, you can easily find the information you need.

Use a graphic organizer to take notes when you read. A graphic organizer is a form you can use to organize information. As you read, fill out the form with important information. Then, use your graphic organizer to help you study for the test. Try using the Cornell notes worksheet (you can download an example at Jim Burke’s website). Not only does this organizer let you record important terms, ideas, notes, and summaries, it also lets you quiz yourself on that information by folding the answers upside down.

Make your own practice test. After you finish reading, pretend you are a professor who is writing a test for the chapter. Review the material you just read and make up your own practice test. Include all vocabulary words, study questions (they’re usually at the beginning or end of the chapter), and highlighted words you can find, as well as any other information you think is important. Take the test you’ve created to see if you remember the information. If not, go back and study some more.

Create visual flashcards. Flashcards aren’t just f

or primary students. Many post graduate students find them useful as well! Before you take a test, make flashcards that will help you remember important terms, people, places, and dates. Use one 3x5 index for each term. On the front of the card, write down the term or question you need to answer and draw a picture that will help you remember it.

This will help ensure that you grasp the study material as you’ll find that it’s almost impossible to sketch something you don’t really understand. On the back of the card write down the definition of the term or the answer to the question. Review these cards and quiz yourself before your actual test.

(After Jamie Littlefield, About.com Guide

Answer the following questions:

  1. Did you hate your exams when you were an undergraduate student? Did you worry much? Or were you indifferent?
  2. Which of these five tips and tricks given above have you known before?
  3. Which of them would you like to employ while sitting for your candidate exam?
  4. Are you hard on your own students when you are examining them? Prepare a 2 minute story about how you prefer to read for an exam.

Part 2. Smart Study Skills for 7 Intelligence Types

People are smart in different ways. Some people can create a catchy song at the drop of a hat. Others can memorize everything in a book, paint a masterpiece, or be the center of attention. When you realize what you’re good at, you can figure out the best way to study. Based on Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence, these study tips can help you tailor your learning for your intelligence type.

Word Smart (Linguistic intelligence) — Word smart people are good with words, letters, and phrases. They enjoy activities such as reading, playing scrabble or other word games, and having discussions. If you’re word smart, these study strategies can help:

make flashcards

take extensive notes

keep a journal of what you learn

Number Smart (logical-mathematical intelligence) Number smart people are good with numbers, equations, and logic. They enjoy coming up with solutions to logical problems and figuring things out. If you’re number smart, give these strategies a try:

make your notes into numeric charts and graphs

use the Roman numeral style of outlining

put information you receive into categories and classifications that you create

Picture Smart (spatial intelligence) — Picture smart people are good with art and design. They enjoy being creative, watching movies, and visiting art museums. Picture smart people can benefit from these study tips:

sketch pictures that go along with your notes or in the margins of your textbooks

draw a picture on a flashcard for each concept or vocabulary word you study

use charts and graphic organizers to keep track of what you learn

Body Smart (Kinesthetic intelligence) — Body smart people work well with their hands. They enjoy physical activity such as exercise, sports, and outdoor work. These study strategies can help body smart people be successful:

act out or imagine the concepts you need to remember

look for real-life examples that demonstrate what you’re learning about search for manipulatives, such as computer programs, that can help you master material

Music Smart (Musical intelligence) — Music smart people are good with rhythms and beats. They enjoy listening to cds, attending concerts, and creating songs. If you’re music smart, these activities can help you study:

create a song or rhyme that will help you remember a concept

listen to classical music while you study

remember vocabulary words by linking them to similar-sounding words in your mind

People Smart (Interpersonal intelligence) — Those who are people smart are good with relating to people. They enjoy going to parties, visiting with friends, and sharing what they learn. People smart students should give these strategies a try:

discuss what you learn with a friend or family member

have someone quiz you before an exam

create or join a study group

Self Smart (Intrapersonal intelligence) — Self smart people are comfortable with themselves. They enjoy being alone to think and reflect. If you’re self smart, try these tips:

keep a personal journal about what you’re learning

find a place to study where you won’t be interrupted

keep yourself involved in assignments by individualizing each project

(After Jamie Littlefield, About.com Guide

Answer the following questions:

What are you smart in?

What smart type do you belong to?

What are you good with?

What do you enjoy doing?

How does it help you in doing your research?

Vocabulary and idiom notes to memorize and use

Chances are you’ll have to sit through many a test-taking experience

There are a few tricks you can learn to avoid the worry

In the heat of the moment

To give smith (these five proven study tips) a try To take a couple of minutes to find (to do smith) To sit down to study (to do smith)

To make sure Upcoming tests A post-it note

Since each note is stuck To fill out the form with Highlighted words

A catchy song

At the drop of a hat. To be good at

To figure out To tailor

To play scrabble

To use the Roman numeral style of outlining

To benefit from

To visit with friends

To keep oneself involved in

Section 2. GUIDELINES FOR GRAMMAR TEST

Missing conjunctions

Conjunctions are connecting words; they join parts of a sentence. In this lesson, we’ll look at two main types of conjunctions. Coordinate conjunctions are used to join equal sentence parts: single words, phrases, and independent clauses. When two full clauses are joined, they are usually separated by a comma. The coordinate conjunctions you will most often see are listed in below.

And (addition), or (choice, possibility), but (contrast), nor (opposition)

Hereford cows are brown and white.

He washed his car and cleaned up the garage.

This plant can be grown in a house or in a garden. Her action was very brave or very foolish.

Charlie brought his wallet but forgot his checkbook. The book discussed

some interesting ideas but it wasn’t very well written.

He’s never taken a class in sociology, nor does he intend to. 1 didn’t have breakfast nor lunch.

(The conjunction so is used to join only clauses—not single words or phrases.)

Conjunctive adverbs (moreover, therefore, however, nevertheless, and so on) are also used to join clauses; they are also often used in test questions as distractors—they seldom appear as correct answers.

Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions. Like coordinate conjunctions, they are used to join clauses, phrases, and words.

So (negation effect) It was a bright clay, so she put on her sunglasses.

Both…and, not only…but also (addition) Both wolves and coyotes are members of the dog family. Dominic studied not only mathematics but also computer science.

Either…or (choice, possibility), neither…nor (negation) We need either a nail nor a screw to hang up this picture. Neither the television nor the stereo had been turned off.

Make the right choice:

1. Blindfish, which spend their whole lives in caves, have eyes nor body pigments.

not any

neither

nor

without

2. Thomas Eakins studied not only painting

anatomy -when he was training to become an artist.

moreover

but also

as well

and

4. Although topology is the youngest branch of geometry is considered the most sophisticated.

but it

so it

it

however it

Errors with correlative conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are two-part adjectives. Errors usually involve an incorrect combination of their parts, such as neither ... or or not only . . . and. Anytime you see a sentence containing correlative conjunctions you should be on the lookout for this type of error. This is an easy error to spot!

Correlative Conjunctions: neither..nor, both... and, not only...but also, either...or.

Another error is the use of both . . . and to join three elements. E.g.:

The air that surrounds the plant is both odorless, colorless, and invisible. Both…and can be used to join two elements. In this sentence the word both must be eliminated.

Errors with coordinate conjunctions

The conjunction and is correctly used to show addition; or is used to show choice between alternatives; but is used to show contrast or opposition.

Execise Identify errors involving conjunctions.

Directions: If the underlined form is correct, mark the sentence C. If the underlined form is incorrect, mark the sentence I, and write a correction for the underlined form at the end of the sentence.

Model airplanes can be guided both by control wires or by radio transmitters.

Information in a computer can be lost because it is no longer stored or because it is stored but cannot be retrieved.

Martin Luther was not only a religious leader and also a social reformer.

Although fish can hear, they have neither external ears or eardrums.

In all animals, whether simple and complex, enzymes aid in the digestion of food.

The two most common methods florists use to tint flowers are the spray

method or the

absorption method.

Beekeepers can sell either the honey and the beeswax that their bees produce.

The alloys brass and bronze both contain copper as their principle metals.

The human brain is often compared to a computer, and such an analogy can be misleading.

Rust both corrodes the surface of metal but also weakens its structure.

Mini-test

Choose the correct conjunction

Some people are smart in music, (and/or/but/nor) they are not so smart in mathematics, (and/or/but/nor) are they smart in computer science.

Many people cannot fix their cars (however/or/so/nor) they have to ask car repair workers.

(However/Or/So/Nor) car mechanics cannot teach languages, (however/or/ so/nor) can they bake bread.

John can memorize everything in a book, (moreover/therefore/however/ nevertheless) he can be a good student.(But/ Or/So/Nor) he is not.

Everybody was exhausted after a day-long walking tour, (moreover/therefore/nor/nevertheless) no one wanted to go to bed.

When you realize what you’re good at, you can figure out the best way to study, (moreover/therefore/however/nevertheless) you can help others to study.

Make the right choice:

While reading an ad in a French magazine the tourist understood the entire text its parts.

any

neither

nor

without

You cannot use post-in notes sticking them in the section.

any

neither

no

without

The question is silly impossible to answer.

both

neither

nor

and

Include in your test vocabulary words, study questions, and highlighted words you can find, as well as any other information you think is important.

both

not only

but also

and

Correct the errors

A work of science fiction generally uses scientific discoveries and advanced technology, either real or imaginary, as part of its plot.

Community theater both provides entertainment for local audiences but also furnishes a creative outlet for amateurs interested in drama.

The heron is a long-legged wading bird that preys on both frogs, fish, and eels.

For over twenty years after winning the World Chess Championship in 1972, Bobby Fischer played in either a tournament nor an exhibition game.

Designing fabric requires not only artistic talent but knowledge of fiber and of textile machinery.


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