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Section 1. GUIDELINES FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION

How To Write A Critique Paper

Instruction: This is an adaptation of Kendra Cherry’s recommendations for graduate students and young researchers, published in the Internet without copyright limitations. You are sure to realize that a postgraduate student’s activity starts with collecting special information and critically reviewing scholarly papers in his or her field. On reading and understanding the following text your purpose will be to acquire the standard guidelines along which any critique is written. This will be your long-term goal. However your immediate goal is to get ready to present the ideas through the vocabulary that you acquire in this section at your English candidate exam..

Most postgraduate students will be expected to write a critique paper at some point. Critiquing a professional paper is a great way to learn more about your field articles, writing, and the research process itself. Students can analyze how researchers conduct experiments, interpret results, and discuss the impact of the results.

Difficulty: Average Time Required: Variable Here’s How:

1. Read the introduction section of the article.

Is the hypothesis clearly stated? Is necessary background information and previous research described in the introduction? In addition to answering these basic questions, you should take note of information provided in the introduction and any questions that you may have.

2. Read the methods section of the article.

Is the study procedure clearly outlined? Can you determine which variables the researchers are measuring? Remember to jot down questions and thoughts that come to mind as you are reading.

3. Read the results section of the article.

Are all tables and graphs clearly labeled? Do researchers provide enough statistical information? Did the researchers collect all of the data needed to measure the variables in question?

4. Read the discussion section of the article.

How do the researchers interpret the results of the study? Did the results support their hypothesis? Do the conclusions drawn by the researchers seem reasonable? The discussion section offers students a good opportunity to take a position. If you agree with the researcher’s conclusions, explain why. If you feel that the researcher’s conclusions are incorrect or off-base, point out problems with the conclusions and suggest alternative explanations.

5. Prepare an outline of your article.

Once you have read the article thoroughly, prepare an outline of your thoughts on the article. Use the following guide to help structure your critique paper:

6. Introduction Begin your paper by describing the journal article and authors you are critiquing. Provide the main hypothesis or thesis of the paper and explain why you think the information is relevant.

7. Thesis Statement The final part of your introduction should include your thesis statement. Your thesis statement is the main idea of your critique.

ng>8. Article Summary Provide a brief summary of the article, outlining the main points, results, and discussion.

9. Your Analysis In this section, you should provide your critique of the article. Describe any problems you had with the author’s premise, methods, or conclusions. Your critique might focus on problems with the author’s argument, presentation, or on information and alternatives that have been overlooked.

10. Conclusion Your critique paper should end with an overview of the articles argument, your conclusions, and your reactions.

(After Kendra Cherry, About.com Guide)

Answer the following questions:

Do you agree that critiquing a professional paper is a great way to learn more about your field articles? If you do, how does it help you?

What do you learn from reading the introduction/the methods section/the results section/the discussion section of the article under analysis?

What items does the outline of your critique article include?

Have you ever written a critique?

What difficulties did you experience and why?

Prepare a 2 minute story about the framework of a good critique article.

Vocabulary and idiom notes to memorize and use

A critique paper Your field articles

The impact of the results. To jot down

To come to mind

To draw conclusions Off-base

Once you have read

The author’s premise = assumption, (pre)supposition; (pre)condition, prerequisite

To overlook = to miss

Section 2. GUIDELINES FOR GRAMMAR TEST

Incomplete adverb clauses Full adverb clauses

An adverb clause consists of a connecting word, called an adverb clause marker (or subordinate conjunction), and at least a subject and a verb. An adverb clause can precede the main clause or follow it. When the adverb clause comes first, it is separated from the main clause by a comma.

Example:

The demand for economical cars increases when gasoline becomes more expensive.

When gasoline becomes more expensive, the demand for economical cars increases.

In this example, the adverb clause marker when joins the adverb clause to the main clause. The verb clause contains a subject (gasoline) and a verb (becomes).

The following markers are commonly used:

Examples:

Time: Your heart rate increases when you exercise.

Time: Some people like to listen to music while they are studying. Time: Some people arrived in taxis while others took the subway. Time: One train was arriving as another was departing.

Time: We haven’t seen Professor Hill since she returned from her trip.

Time: Don’t put off going to the dentist until you have a problem.

Time: Once the dean arrives, the meeting can begin.

Time: Before he left the country, he bought some traveler’s checks. Time: She will give a short speech after she is presented with the award. Cause: Because the speaker was sick, the program was canceled.

Opposition (contrary cause): Since credit cards are so convenient, many people use them.

Contrast: Although he earns a good salary, he never saves any money.

Contrast: Even though she was tired, she stayed up late.

Condition: If the automobile had not been invented, what would people use for basic transportation?

Condition: I won’t go unless you do.

In structure items, any part of a full adverb clause—the marker, the subject, the verb, and so on—can be missing from the stem.

Clause markers with ever: Words that end with -ever are sometimes used as adverb clause markers: whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, however. In some sentences, these words are actually noun-clause markers.

Examples:

Put that box wherever you can find room for it. They stay at that hotel whenever they’re in Boston.

However you solve the problem, you’ll get the same answer.

Reduced adverb clauses

When the subject of the main clause and the subject of the adverb clause are the same person or thing, the adverb clause can be reduced (shortened). Reduced adverb clauses do not contain a main verb or a subject. They consist of a marker and a participle (either a present or a past participle) or a marker and an adjective.

Examples:

When astronauts are orbiting the Earth, they don’t feel the force of gravity, (full adverb clause).

When orbiting the Earth, astronauts don’t feel the force of gravity, (reduced clause with present participle).

Although it had been damaged, the machine was still operational, (full adverb clause).

Although damaged, the machine was still operational, (reduced clause with a past participle).

Although he was nervous, he gave a wonderful speech, (full adverb clause) Although nervous, he gave a wonderful speech, (reduced clause with an adjective).

You will most often see reduced adverb clauses with the markers although, while, if, when, before, after, and until. Reduced adverb clauses are NEVER used after because.

Mini-test

Identify and correct errors involving adverb clauses

, I don’ think criminals and terrorists can be included.

When human rights are the equal rights of everyone

Even though human rights are the equal rights of everyone

If human rights are the equal rights of everyone

Because human rights are the equal rights of everyone No one has less or more rights

if the next person does.

than the next person does.

because the next person does.

when the next person does.

It’s not 1 2 his or her rights, to torture, to silence, to indoctrinate.

when someone committed a crime

because someone committed a crime

though someone committed a crime

if someone committed a crime 2

who are allowed to take away

when we are allowed to take away

that we are allowed to take away

which we are allowed to take away

because of all of us have

when of all of us have 2

though limited

when limited

if limited

because limited

We have freedom of movement 1 entail the right to enter the private property _2_ to our neighbors.

although it does not

when does not

that it does not

if it does not 2

because it belongs

that belongs

if it who belongs

that belongs

So the fact does not set them apart from ordinary citizens.

when criminals’ rights are limited

of criminals’ rights are limited

that criminals’ rights are limited

as criminals’ rights are limited

It does not mean are not equal anymore.

whose human rights

which human rights

that human rights

more than human rights

Human rights are equal the unconditional property of us all.

as soon as they are

with the purpose that they are

because they are

if they are

We do not have to fulfil certain conditions — such as respect 1 –

because we must have for the law

though we must have for the law

as we must have for the law

we must have for the law 2

wherever we have them.

since that we have them.


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