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Section 1. GUIDELINES FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION

Steps for Writing Effective Abstracts

Instruction: Below are the guidelines for abstract writing continued. This is an adaptation of several texts placed in the Internet without copyright limitations. You are sure to realize that to write a good abstract you will have to gain experience of using all steps recommended in this unit. Your abstract must be in the right format to meet necessary requirements. On following the given steps and writing a good abstract your purpose is not only to acquire the standard guidelines along which an abstract is written but also to get ready to discuss abstract writing skills at your English candidate exam.

Part 1. Follow These Steps

Reread the article, paper, or report with the goal of abstracting in mind.

Review your original article.

Outline its main themes and highlights to use for your abstract.

Look specifically for these main parts of the article, paper, or report: purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendation.

Re-read your original article and try to pinpoint any concepts you could use as keywords for an Internet search. Headings, titles or table of contents are usually good sources of keywords.

Use the headings, outline heads, and table of contents as a guide to writing your abstract.

If you’re writing an abstract about another person’s article, paper, or report, the introduction and the summary are good places to begin. These areas generally cover what the article emphasizes.

Write a rough draft.

After you’ve finished rereading the article, paper, or report, write a rough draft without looking back at what you’re abstracting.

Summarize the article using new words.

Don’t copy and paste from the original! This rough draft should be longer than your finished product so you can delete unnecessary words. Let yourself brainstorm while you edit.

Write an introductory sentence. This will be a statement of purpose for your article. It should introduce your central concept.

Write the body. This will be a brief description of the subject matter, roughly one or two paragraphs.

Embed keywords into the first 20 words of the body. Make them inconspicuous so they don’t break the reader’s concentration.

Write a one or two sentence conclusion. This should entice someone to read more. Edit and revise your abstract as needed. It is best to let a day pass before you return to it with fresh eyes. Edit unnecessary words. Be sure you clearly present your main points.

Don’t merely copy key sentences from the article, paper, or report: you’ll put in too much or too little information.

Don’t rely on the way material was phrased in the article, paper, or report: summarize information in a new way.

Revise your rough draft to correct weaknesses in organization:

improve transitions from point to point,

drop unnecessary information,

add important information you left out,

eliminate wordiness,

fix errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

Print your final copy and read it again to catch any glitches that you find.

Tips and Warnings

Embed keywords into the first 20 words of your abstract. This will make it visible to the major Internet search engines if you publish online.

Emphasize the information, not the author, unless the author has noteworthy credentials.

Never introduce new information in the abstract. Reveal what’s in the article.

Read it aloud to yourself or to a friend.

Make sure it sounds natural and coherent.

Keep it short — stick to one or two solid paragraphs/

Vocabulary and idiom notes for discussing abstracts

With the goal of doing smth To abstract in mind Without looking back at

Let yourself brainstorm The subject matter

To let a day pass before you do smth

Transitions from point to point Fix errors in grammar Noteworthy credentials

Do the following tasks:

Take any short (5-10 pages) Ukrainian/Russian language article. If it is preceded with an abstract, forget it. It would be best if you take your own new article.

Prepare an abstract (in Ukrainian/Russian) diligently following all the steps given above.

Prepare a 2 minute story (in English) about the steps you have had to pass while preparing your abstract.

Part 2. Sample Science Abstracts

1. Gravitational radiation from black hole spacetimes

Luis Lehner, Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1998. DAI-B 59/06. 279 p., Dec 1998

Abstract:

The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.

Key words: gravitational radiation (GR), spacetimes, black holes.

2. Chemistry of acetyl transfer by histone modifying enzymes: structure, mechanism and implications for effector design

S C. Hodawadekar and R. Marmorstein

The Wistar Institute and The Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Abstract:

The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in chromatin regulation, a process that insures the fidelity of gene expression and other DNA transactions. Of the enzymes that mediate post-translation modification, the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins that add and remove acetyl groups to and from target lysine residues within histones, respectively, have been the most extensively studied at both the functional and structural levels. Not surprisingly, the aberrant activity of several of these enzymes have been implicated in human diseases such as cancer and metabolic disorders, thus making them important drug targets. Significant mechanistic insights into the function of HATs and HDACs have come from the X-ray crystal structures of these enzymes both alone and in liganded complexes, along with associated enzymatic and biochemical studies. In this review, we will discuss what we have learned from the structures and related biochemistry of HATs and HDACs and the implications of these findings for the design of protein effectors to regulate gene expression and treat disease.

Keywords: histone acetyltransferases (HAT), histone deacetylases (HDAC), post-translational histone modifications.

3 The Response of Small Business Owners to Changes in Monetary Policy

William C. Dunkelberg and Jonathan A. Scott

Abstract:

The small business sector of the economy accounts for half of private gross domestic product and well over half of private sector employment. Little is known about how these firms and the banks that serve them are affected by changes in monetary policy. Using data from the monthly surveys of the members of the National Federation of Independent Business, the impact of unexpected (between meeting) Federal Reserve announcements on owner expectations and hiring and spending plans are examined. Using interviews filled out during the month, «before» and «after» groups are analyzed to assess the impact of Federal Reserve announcements on firm behavior. Narrowing the analysis period to just days before and after Federal Reserve announcements permits the assessment of owner responses uncontaminated by other events. Changes in owner expectations and spending and hiring plans are shown to be translated into subsequent changes in actual spending and hiring that are often the opposite of what is suggested by conventional economic theory. Firms that do not use debt respond in the same way as those regularly active in credit markets. The results provide additional insight and richness to our understanding of the transmission channels through which monetary policy impacts the real econ

Keywords: monetary policy, monetary policy transmission, small business, Federal Reserve announcements.

4. Cooperation in Games with Forgetfulness

Raphael Thomadsen, Pradeep Bhardwaj

UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095

Abstract:

Companies and managers are apt to forget information, yet classic game theory analysis assumes that all players have perfect recall. This paper expands the literature by examining how introducing forgetfulness into a multiplayer game-theoretic framework can help or hinder cooperative behavior. We find that forgetfulness impacts the ability of firms to cooperate in countervailing directions. On one hand, forgetfulness can diminish the ability to punish deviators, making cooperation more difficult. On the other hand, under some conditions forgetfulness can make meting out severe punishments—even below-(stage) minimax punishments—credible and decrease the ability for players to effectively deviate, facilitating cooperation even in circumstances where cooperation cannot be sustained under perfect recall. We apply our model to a number of strategic games that commonly appear in the literature. Key Words: marketing; competitive strategy; games–group decisions; information systems; IT policy and management

5. THE SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF MARTIAL ARTS PRACTISE AMONG YOUTH: A REVIEW

Jikkemien Vertonghen and Marc Theeboom Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium

Abstract:

Martial arts involvement among the youth has been described in controversial terms. Studies regarding the effects of martial arts practise on youth show contrasting images. While some refer to enhanced personal and social opportunities for those that participate, others warn against increased levels of aggressiveness and antisocial behavior among its participants. The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of studies concerning the social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise. Secondly, the limitations of those studies are discussed. From more than 350 papers, collected during a two-year lasting literature study, 27 papers met all criteria to be included in this study. This review revealed that even though a considerable amount of research on social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practise has been conducted over the years, to date, it has not brought clarity in the existing duality regarding the possible effects of martial arts involvement. It is proposed that a better understanding can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into account in future research (i.e., participants’ characteristics, type of guidance, social context and structural qualities of the sport).

Key words: Martial arts, youth, personality traits.

6. Psychology as a Social Science

Nikolas Rose

London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK

Abstract:

This paper describes the social role of psychology as it took shape across the 20th century, and argues that it was, in large part, this social vocation that provided the conditions for psychology establishing itself as an academic discipline. The development of psychology in this period was bound up with changes in the understanding and treatment of distress, conceptions of normality and abnormality, techniques of regulation, normalization, reformation and correction; on child rearing and education, advertising, marketing and consumption technologies and the management of human behaviour in practices from the factory to the military. Psychological languages entered common sense and professional discourse across Europe and North America, in Australasia, in Latin America and in many other countries. Human beings came to understand themselves as inhabited by a deep interior psychological space, to evaluate themselves and to act upon themselves and others in terms of this belief. As we enter the 21st century, the deep psychological space that opened within us is beginning to flatten out, and our discontents are being mapped directly onto the brain. Will the 21st century still be the century of psychology?

Keywords: normality, abnormality, individuality, group, attitudes, genealogy.

Vocabulary and Idiom for Abstract Writing The problem of detecting

The theoretical modeling of

The characteristic formulation of Studies regarding the effects of

A process that insures the fidelity of

Significant mechanistic insights into the function of The development of

A considerable amount of A sector of

The implications of these findings for Changes in

A module to calculate

(It) was bound up with changes in the understanding

(It)is receiving considerable attention with the construction (It) enables the unambiguous calculation of

(It) is constructed and included in

(It) will expedite the search for and analysis of (It) is implemented to obtain

(It) is included in (It) is proposed that

(It) has been described in controversial terms (It) plays an important role in

(It) accounts for

(It) responds in the same way as those (It) permits the assessment of

(It) impacts the ability of (It) can help or hinder

(It) can diminish the ability to (It) can make meting out

(It) provided the conditions for

(It) entered common sense and professional discourse (It) was bound up with changes in the understanding (Smb) came to understand

(They) cooperate in countervailing directions. (They) decrease the ability for… to …, (They) commonly appear in the literature

(They) are affected by changes in

(They) are shown to be translated into subsequent changes in (They) are often the opposite of what is suggested by

(They) are apt to

They have been implicated in

They have been the most extensively studied at both the functional and structural levels

This is shown to be …and to handle Little is known about how

Classic analysis assumes that We find that

We have shown that

We further use the characteristic formulation to treat We apply our model to a number of

Using compactification techniques Using data from the monthly surveys of

Using interviews filled out during the month, Narrowing the analysis period to just days Facilitating cooperation even in circumstances Regarding the possible effects of

Making cooperation more difficult Establishing itself as an academic discipline

This paper describes … and argues that

These papers met all criteria to be included in this study. This paper expands the literature by examining how

The results provide additional insight and richness to our understanding In this review, we will discuss what we have learned from

The aim of the present review is to provide, firstly, an overview of the major findings of studies concerning

This review revealed that even though research on While some refer to … others warn against

The research has not brought clarity in

The limitations of those studies are discussed. The groups are analyzed to assess the impact of Plans are examined

The research has been conducted over the years, to date

A better understanding can be provided if specific influential factors are taken into account in future research

In particular, Not surprisingly, Along with

Well over half of In large part, Respectively, On one hand,

On the other hand, Firstly,

Secondly,

Under some conditions Across Europe

Both alone and in … complexes, In terms of this belief,

Do the following tasks:

Read the six abstracts and choose the one which you would like to take as a pattern to follow for imitation.

Take a Ukrainian/Russian language article and prepare an abstract strictly following the steps given in Part 1 and using the Vocabulary given above.

Take an English language article and prepare an abstract strictly following

the steps given in Part 1 and using the Vocabulary given above

Prepare a 2 minute story about the framework of a good English language abstract.

Section 2. GUIDELINES FOR GRAMMAR TEST

Errors in word order

Most word order errors consist of two words in reverse order. Some of the most common examples of this type of error are given below.

Examples:

Goods such as flowers fresh and seafood are often shipped by air. The adjective fresh must come before the noun flowers: fresh flowers.

Visitors to Vancouver often comment on how beautiful its setting is and on how clean is it. The correct word order is subject + verb: it is

You may encounter errors with either correlative conjunctions or coordinate conjunctions.

All of the answer choices for a structure item involving word order contain more or less the same words, but they are arranged in four different orders. The word order is «scrambled» in three choices; one direct. Most items consist of three or four words.

a) XYZ

b) YXZ

c) ZYX

d) XZY

Word order problems are easy to identify because the answer choices are exactly—or almost :exactly—the same length, so the answer choices form a rectangle.

Examples:

Andromeda is a galaxy containing millions of individual stars, but it is Earth that it looks like a blurry patch of light.

a) so far away from

b) away so far from

c) from so far away

d) away from so far

Only choice (A) involves the correct word order for this sentence. Choices

and (D) are incorrect word orders in any sentence. Choice (C) could be correct in certain sentences, but is not correct in the context of this sentence.

Alaska is sutuated the rest of the US that it takes three hours to go from Anchorage to Seattle by air.

a) so far away from

b) away so far from

c) from so far away

d) away from so far

The correct choice is (A).

Many different types of structures are used in word order problems. One of the most common is a use with a superlative adjective or adverb.

Word order items are the only sentence structure items in which the distractors can be ungrammatical. In sentence structure problems, distractors are always correct in some context. However, at least two of the sentences may be grammatical. The correct choice depends on the context of the sentence.

It sometimes is easy to eliminate distractors in word order items by making sure they «fit» with the type of the sentence. If you are not sure which remaining answer is correct, use your «ear.» Say the :sentence to yourself (silently) to see which sounds best. Sometimes in word order problems, the answer which looks best doesn’t always sound best. Don’t, however, go just by the sound of the answer choices; you must consider them as part of the whole sentence.

A special type of word order problem involves inversions. This type of sentence uses question word order even though the sentence is not a question. When are inversions used?

When the negative words listed below are placed at the beginning of a clause for emphasis. E.g.:

not only, not until, not once, at no time, by no means, nowhere never, seldom, rarely scarcely, no sooner

Examples:

Not only_ shade and beauty, but they also reduce carbon dioxide.

do trees provide

trees provide

provide trees

trees do provide

Only choice (A) correctly uses question word order after not only. Choices

(B) and (C) do not use an auxiliary verb, which is required after not only. Choice

does not follow the correct word order: auxiliary + adjective + main verb Not once was he on time.

Seldom have I heard such beautiful music.

Not only did the company lose profits, but it also had to lay off workers.

When the following expressions beginning with only occur at the beginning of a sentence (with these expressions, the subject and verb in that clause are inverted):

only in (on, at, by, etc.), only once, only recently

Examples:

Only in an emergency should you use this exit. Only recently did she return from abroad.

When the following expressions beginning with only occur at the beginning of a sentence (with these expressions, the subject and verb of the second clause are inverted):

only if, only when, only because, only after, only until

Examples:

Only if you have a serious problem should you call Mr. Franklin at home. Only when you are satisfied is the sale considered final.

When clauses beginning with the word so + an adjective or participle occur at the beginning of a sentence

Examples:

So rare is this coin that it belongs in a museum.

So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions. When clauses beginning with expressions of place or order occur at the be-

ginning of a sentence (in these cases, the subject and main verb are inverted since auxiliary verbs are not used as they would be in most questions)

Examples:

In front of the museum is a statue.

Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands.

First came a police car, then came an ambulance.

Mini-test

Identify and correct errors involving word order

It is said that

from the Pacific the first refugees of climate change will come.

the first refugees of climate change from the Pacific will come.

the first will come refugees of climate change from the Pacific.

the first refugees of climate change will come from the Pacific.

In the midst of this ocean’s tropical regions 1 populated continents 2 , 8,000 of them inhabited.

1

a) far away from

b) away so far from

c) from so far away

d) away from so far

2

a) small 50,000 islands are scattered

b) are scattered 50,000 small islands

c) 50,000 small islands are scattered

d) scattered are 50,000 small islands

to the impacts of global warming.

a) Particularly vulnerable they are

b) Particularly vulnerable are they

c) They are particularly vulnerable (D).

d) Vulnerable they are particularly

1 behind this fresh water lens formation on a coral island, IRD and its partners studied the structure and such parameters 2 .

1

a) With the objective of understanding the processes

b) To objectively understand the processes

c) Understanding the processes with the objective of (D).

d) Should they understand the processes objectively

2

a) as the the reservoir geometry of flow rates

b) as the geometry of the reservoir and flow rates

c) like the geometry of the reservoir and flow rates

d) as the reservoir and flow rates geometry in coastal and island reservoirs

a) Unstable is the balance ……….

b) The balance unstable is …………

c) Between fresh water and salt water the balance is unstable ……….

d) The balance between freshwater and salt water ………. is unstable


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